I ran into this problem while trying to set up a linked server from SQL server(SQL 2016 Developer Edition) to Active Directory. More information how to do that can be found here https://www.mssqltips.com/sqlservertip/2580/querying-active-directory-data-from-sql-server/
"The OLE DB provider "ADSDSOObject" for linked server "ADSI" reported an error. The provider indicates that the user did not have the permission to perform the operation."
After googling and binging and scratching my head, it turned out that I misspelled the domain name in the user name for the LDAP connection. As I found many other solutions for this problem but no one mentioned a typo I wanted to share this. The OLE DB provider is giving only a little information back about the real problem.